Ideas, Enlightenment and Reconstruction of World
The ideas and enlightenment of Dr. Ambedkar are very vast and universal, and not confined merely to Indian context; though the context of caste, untouchability, Hinduism, constitutional rights are firmly expressed, due to the fact that His movement was orchestrated in India. Though the movement was conducted in India for the liberation of depressed classes and Bahujans, the ideas & enlightenment have a ‘world view’ of humanity & world, and directly address its problems, sufferings and their removals. They now all have been understood as ideology, philosophy, policy, path & process of AMBEDKARISM; as a new enlightenment for the world and humankind.
Individual and Free Social Order
Dr. Ambedkar was an ardent believer in Human dignity, rights and wellbeing. For Him individual is the ‘end’ in himself and the aim and object of society is the growth of the individual and the development of his [her] personality. The second essential being that the terms of ‘associated life’ between members of society must be regarded by consideration founded on liberty, equality and fraternity. He envisioned a free social order which maintains all channels of social endosmosis; where social contacts between classes [and communities, castes] does dissolve customs and reconstruct the mental attitudes. It prevents the separation of classes into privileged & unprivileged, masters & servants [or capitalists & labourers].
Whereas Liberty [civil & political] is absolutely essential for the progress-intellectual, moral, political & social; ‘real liberty’ of action exists only where ‘exploitation’ has been annihilated, where no suppression of one class by another exist; and a person is free from the fear of wants.
Fraternity is the ‘disposition’ of an individual to treat men as the object of reverence and love and the desire to be in unity with his fellow beings. It strengthens socialites and gives to each individual a stronger personal interest in particularly consulting the ‘welfare of others’ or fellow-feeling. Individualism would produce anarchy and only fraternity helps sustain the moral order among men. The growth of sentiment of fraternity lies in sharing in the vital processes of life.
That all men are ‘created’ equal. Fraternity and Liberty are really derivative notions, the basic and fundamental concepts are Equality and respect for human personality in which they take their roots, opined political & moral philosopher – Ambedkar.
Labour and New World Order
Ambedkar’s consideration of liberty, equality, fraternity go much deeper. He argued this in His conception of Labour and New World Order, that labours conception of liberty is very positive. Labour wants Government, which is Government by the people in name, as well as fact. Secondly, liberty as conceived by labour includes the right to equal opportunity and the duty of the state to provide the fullest facilities for growth to every individual according to his needs.
By equality labour means abolition of privileges of every kind in law, in the civil service, in the Army, in taxation, in trade and in industry: in fact the abolition of all processes which lead to inequity. Labour wants fraternity. By fraternity it means an all-pervading sense of human brotherhood, unifying all classes and all nations, with “peace on earth and good will towards man” as its motto. Whereas Dr. Amdedkar considered equality, liberty, fraternity as a trinity which cannot be separated from one another; he wanted these principles to be facts of human life and therefore envisaged a New World Order [by dismantling old orders of monarchy, feudalism, theocracy, colonialism] in which liberty, equality and fraternity, will not be mere slogans but will become “facts of life”.
These labours ideals of E-L-F “constitute the New Order, the establishment of which alone can save humanity from destruction.” The laboring classes must ultimately aim at to : “Replace this wage slavery by a system which will recognize the principles of liberty, equality, and fraternity. This means rebuilding of society.”
This however required “revaluation of values” and “reconstruction of society”, according to Ambedkar, the humanitarian revolutionary.
Democracy, Democratic World Order and Just World Order
Political and Moral Philosopher – Ambedkar defined democracy in a fundamentally different way as:
“A form and method of government whereby revolutionary changes in the economic and social life of the people are brought about without bloodshed.”
“Democracy is not merely a form of Government. It is primarily a mode of associated living, of conjoint communicated experience. It is essentially an attitude of respect and reverence towards fellowmen.”
“Democracy is more than a political machine. It is even more than a social system. It is an attitude of mind or philosophy of life.”
Dr. Ambedkar enunciated that democracy is not merely a form of government but essentially a form of society. The roots of democracy are to be searched in the social relationship in the terms of associated life between the people who form a society. Therefore a “democratic form of government presupposes a democratic form of society.”
“Social and economic democracy are the tissues and the fibre of a Political Democracy. The tougher the tissue and the fiber, the greater the strength of a body.”
Dr. Ambedkar the pragmatist democrat was candid enough to recognize the reasons of discontent & dissatisfaction against Parliamentary Democracy [PD], irrespective of the fact that it has all the hallmarks of a popular government; due the wrong ideology [of freedom of contract giving more emphasis to liberty viz a viz equality] and bad organization [PD is in reality a government of hereditary subject class by a hereditary ruling class]. He also reflected upon the two contradictions under which we are living – the ‘capitalist form of industrial organization’ and the form of ‘political organization of Parliamentary Democracy.’ In politics, equality; in economics, inequality. “One man one vote, one vote one value is our political maxim. Our maxim in economics is a negation of our political maxim”, is what He highlighted. Dr. Ambedkar’s reflections therefore go deep in the conceptions of social, economic, labour, intellectual & moral democracy along with political & parliamentary democracy, for “social & economic equality” along with “political equality”. He wanted democracy to live and does not vanish from the earth as a governing principle of human relation. He wanted the world order nothing, but to be a Democratic World Order. The stand taken to fight Hitler to defeat Nazism and establish Democracy during World War 2nd is a testimony to this fact.
The salvation of the world however could not be had unless the ‘economic and the social organization’ of the “world” and of “other societies” were based upon the principles of L-E-F. Unless there is ‘justice’ there will be no peace in the world, is what He believed in. These considerations go at the root of not only a ‘democratic world order’, but an ‘order of world which is just and peaceful.’
Thus Dr. Ambedkar envisioned not only a Democratic world Order but also a Just World Order. This vision of Dr. Ambedkar stands vindicated with over 120 countries of the world are now democratic and international regime of UNO, IMF, WB, WTO being more ardently pressed to be based on considerations of democracy, justice & peace. Thus unlike Marx’s stateless communist society, Ambedkar’s ‘society’ is democratic, and the ‘world order’ just and democratic, with realization of the principles of equality, liberty, fraternity and justice and ‘reconstruction of society [and institutions]’ and ‘revaluation of values’, leading to a democratic civilization and humanism. Not the western philosophers, but Babasaheb Dr. Ambedkar has most of the answers to Fukuyama’s, Rawl’s or Valentinis’ queries of a global just order.
Annihilation of Caste and Ideal Society
“Caste is not merely division of labour. It is also a division of labourers.” “Caste is the monster that crosses your path. You cannot have political reform, you cannot have economic reform, unless you kill this monster.” “Caste has killed Public spirit, caste has destroyed the sense of public charity. Caste has made public opinion impossible. A Hindus Public is his caste. His responsibility is only to his caste. His loyalty is restricted to his caste. Virtue has become Caste ridden and morality has become caste-bound.” “Hindu society as such does not exist. It is only a collection of castes.” “A Hindu is born in a caste and he dies as a member of that caste. There is no Hindu without a caste.” “Caste is born in religion which has consecrated it and made it sacred … “Religion [Hinduism – shrutis & smritis; customs, usages, practices & order therein] is the Rock on which the Hindus have built their social structure.” Thus ‘origin’ of caste, an “unnatural institution” is done by Hinduism, according to Dr. Ambedkar.
Dr. Ambedkar considered that “Caste is a notion”. “It is a state of mind.” He also expostulated the ‘caste-class system’ and the Hindu Social Order based on graded inequality as sanctified by Hindu religion; thereby denying ‘individual’ liberty & dignity [worth] and negating ‘society’. Caste to Ambedkar is anti-social, anti-democratic, anti-national and anti-human [and also negation of economic development & growth]. He therefore aspires for an ideal society based on equality, liberty, fraternity, which is mobile, full of channels, many interests consciously communicated and shared [i.e. social endosmosis].
Nothing less than the Annihilation of Caste [by notional change, structural change and gunbheda destruction] can realize such an ideal society – a democratic humane society and PraBuddha Bharat or enlightened India; wherein a casteless and classless society [not stateless of Marx] is realized. Nothing less than Conversion; a new life which means a complete change in outlook and in attitude towards ‘men’ and ‘things’ [mental & material world] can orchestrate it. Annihilation of Caste was a National Cause for Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar. It is a ‘project’ to ‘reorganize India’ and ‘reconstruct Indian society’, to a ‘democratic, modern, egalitarian, humanitarian society, order and nation’ and make so the 18% world humanity that Indian’s constitute today.
New India and New Social Order
“More emphasis ought to be placed on New India [than Quit India]”, opined Dr. Ambedkar. He strived for NEW INDIA and a NEW SOCIAL ORDER. This toil and endeavour of Modernist, Nationalist Ambedkar is very significant and encompasses with ‘reorganization of India’ and ‘reconstruction of India’. The ‘Greatest Humanitarian Revolutionary Movement’ of ‘The Greatest Humanitarian Revolutionary of the World’ ever since 1920-1956 is indeed a project of this “reorganization and reconstruction.” It was made a reality by a number of constitutional, legal and policy measures, awakening conscience of Bahujans [and caste Hindus] and enlightenment of humanity.
These “measures” can be summarized as :
- Drafting a Democratic Constitution with rights & safeguards for the SCs, STs, OBCs and Religious Minorities; and creation of a Welfare State with Parliamentary Democracy, flexible Federal Polity and Fundamental Rights of the People.
- Dr. Ambedkar however wanted the economic, social and community rights to be fundamental rights, guaranteed by the law of constitution. This was put forth in States and Minorities submitted to the Fundamental Rights Sub-Committee of Constituent Assembly on 24th March 1947. That constitutional provision was defeated by the duo of J. Kriplani and J. Nehru; as a reason these human rights are not fundamental rights in Indian constitution today.
- Democracy; a representative electoral system – constitutionalism and republicanism.
- Agricultural, Industrial, Urban and Population Policy for removal of poverty of India and providing a ‘leisurful life’ to all Indians with high ‘standards of living.’
- Water, Power, Mineral Policy; Policies of Education & Learning, Science & Technology, Skill Development and Human Capital for an “Industrial Scientific India.”
- Labour Rights, Policies of Welfare and Social Security.
- Womens Liberation, Emancipation and Empowerment.
- United India, with small states and 2nd capital for reorganizing ‘United States of India’ as a flexible federalism, working of democracy, fulfilling wishes of South Indian People, viability & administrative considerations and solving the problem of communal majority viz-a-viz minorities.
- National Integration by means of social, political, geographical, cultural and economic integration.
- PraBuddha Nationalism which is in consonance and complimentary to Internationalism.
- Foreign Policy which is Pro-Democracy and Human Rights and Anti-Nazism, colonialism, imperialism for a ‘democratic, just and new world order.’
- Ambedkarite Economics for achieving ‘growth with equity, dignity & justice’ for Welfare of All, with moral & humane considerations.
- Making Bahujans, Buddhists – an intellectual class, governing class and enlightened people, by Movement and Humanitarian Revolution. Educate ! Agitate ! Organize !! Have Faith in Yourself and Never Loose Hope !!! being the Sutta for them.
The above measures and ideas of Dr. Ambedkar go at the root of reorganizing and reconstructing India as a NEW INDIA with a NEW SOCIAL ORDER. A social order which is a free social order based on E-L-F [by uprooting unjust, inhuman HSO] and India which is Democratic, Developed, Prosperous, Powerful, Just, Egalitarian, Constitutional, Humanitarian & Enlightened. This is the PraBuddha Bharat of Babasaheb D. Ambedkar. An enlightened India showing path to the world. A nationalism consistent with internationalism, based on “equal socio-political community” with “humanitarian & rationalistc culture” cultivating a feeling of oneness, of Kith and Kin as Indians firstly and lastly. Such a nationalism can be ascribed as “PraBuddha Nationalism” and the nation – a “PraBuddha Rashtra.”
Modern World and New World
Justice is the criterion of the ‘Modern World’ in which individual is the ‘end’ and the moral good is held to be something which does justice to the individual. For judging right and wrong in the Antique society was utility, while the norm or the criterion for judging right and wrong in the Modern society is justice, opined Dr. Ambedkar. Law making in Modern Societies is the function of the People, unlike in antique society where it only obeyed the law. Justice has always evoked ideas of equality, of proportion of compensation. “Equity signifies Equality.” Dr. Ambedkar also upheld the ‘differential principle’ for attaining ‘equity’. Justice to Him was another name of liberty, equality and fraternity. Internationalist Ambedkar also argued for a ‘world based on truth and justice’ or a ‘just world order’ for lasting peace. The preamble of ILO very distinctly proclaims this today. He also called for ‘duties of justice’ for a collective action of nations for a ‘better world of justice’ and was ever so compassionate about ‘duties of humanity’ too.
Thus Babasaheb Dr. Ambedkar envisioned a Modern Society and Modern World based on Justice!
This alone was not enough. The enlightenment requires a ‘New World’ for removal of human sufferings and making the world happy! Such a New World must be based on the considerations of morality; science; the moral code must recognize the fundamental tenets of liberty, equality, fraternity as fundamental principles of religion; the religion must not sanctify or ennoble poverty. The world needs such a “new religion”, and it is the Dhamma of Buddha to Babasaheb. The purpose of Dhamma is to reconstruct the world, and not to explain its origin [as is done by religion].
Dhamma as classified by Babasaheb is :
- Law of Nature. 1.Dhamma.
- Law of Karma. 2.A-Dhamma.
- Law of Causation. 3. SadDhamma.
- Law of Dependent Origination.
Dhamma as differed from religion is a ‘way of life’, which emphasizes a ‘high standard of culture’ [culture of mind] which gives happiness, without negating ‘high standard of living’. So Dhamma reconstructs both the “mental and material world” for removal of human sufferings which are caused due to (i) individual (ii) collective, and (iii) natural reasons [and not pre destined, or god made]. Being is Becoming! Nothing is final. Everything is subjected to examination, and change!
This NEW DHAMMA as enunciated by Babasaheb – The New Buddha, for a NEW WORLD can be comprehended as :
- Right Enlightenment (Samma-Bodhi).
- Universal Humanism and Morality.
- Reason i.e. science, truth, spirit of inquiry, rationality.
- Welfare of All human beings and wellbeing of All living beings.
- Moral Order of Universe and World Order of Equality-Liberty-Fraternity-Justice [of Human Rights, Democracy and New World Order].
Nothing less than this New World can make the world free of human sufferings and make it happy. Thus Babasaheb enunciated a New Dhamma for a New World!
These are the ideas, enlightenment and reconstruction of world by AMBEDKARISM. No other philosopher, revolutionary, leader or founder of religion enlightened humanity for its emancipation and wellbeing, that Babasaheb Dr. Ambedkar did. No other movement on the face of earth, in human history liberated 1 Billion humanity from the worst slavery of caste & religion Like Babasaheb Dr. Ambedkar – The New Philosopher and Modern Buddha of New World ! Ambedkarism is the “new way” now. They show the path and enlightenment to the sufferings of humankind like : casteism, racism, ethnicism, gender discrimination, economic exploitation, environmental exploitation, irreligiousness in religions, cultural & religious conflicts, demurgic powers of techno science. They also offer solutions to the various problems haunting the world.