Dr.B.R.Ambedkar – Early Life and Education
MHOW – Indore, MP – The Birth Place of Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar.
Bhimrao was born as the fourteen child of father Ramji Maloraoji Sakpal and mother Bhimabai Sakpal, on 14th April 1891CE at MHOW, Madhyapradesh. Bhim lost mother at an early age. After retirement father Ramji shifted the family in Satara with two daughters and three sons. The Sakpals were native of Ambadave (Ambavade) of Dapoli Tahsil of Ratnagiri District in Maharashtra and had military antecedents of working with British East India Company. Whereas grandfather Maloraoji was Ramandanpanthi, father Ramji a Kabirpanthi. Ramji, a Subedar was principal of military school at MHOW where Bhimrao was born. Being an untouchable Mahar, Bhimrao faced early life untouchability experiences of ‘caste-discrimination’ in Satara and Bombay at the hands of teachers, staff and caste Hindus alike. He was segregated, ill treated and humiliated, to the extent that if school peon was not present, Bhimrao had to be without water. “No peon, No water!” They are recorded in autobiographical notes Waiting For A Visa. The school record name of Bhimrao Ambavadekar was rectified as Ambedkar by His teacher Krishnaji Keshav Ambedkar. The village title Ambavadekar made rectification to Ambedkar easy. Bhimrao qualified matriculation from Elphinstone High School and joined Elphinstone College, Bombay in 1908 for post-matriculation studies. He was the first from the community to do so. In 1909-10 He got married to Parvati alias Ramabai Vanandkar at the age of ninteen. Ramu was fourteen then. In December 1912 they were blessed by son Yeshwant and soon Bhimrao qualified B.A. examination from Bombay University. With the scholarship awarded by benefactor Prince Sayajirao Gaikwad of Baroda, Ambedkar joined Columbia University (1913) where He successfully completed M.A., Ph.D by 1916. The title for Ph.D was The Evolution of Provincial Finance In British India. A Study In The Provincial Decentralization of Imperial Finance, for which He was awarded Ph.D in 1927 after publication [of original work The National Dividend of India – A Historical And Analytical Study].
In October 1916 Ambedkar joined London School of Economics and Political Science, and Greys-Inns, from where he successfully completed M.Sc. (Provincial Decentralization of Imperial Finance in British India) in 1921 and D.Sc. on subject The Problem Of The Rupee – Its Origin And Its Solution in October 1922. The time-taken from 1916 to 22 was due to the lapse of scholarship which led to discontinuing of studies at London. Ambedkar had to work as a Probationer to the Accountant Generals office at State of Baroda and teach as a Professor at Sydenham College. He quit the service of state of Baroda due to humiliating caste discrimination which are recorded in autobiographical notes Waiting For A Visa. Son Gangadhar, daughter Indu, and Ramesh were born to Ambedkar’s between 1917-20. With the help of benefactor Prince Chattrapati Shahu Maharaj, a loan from friend Navel Bhatena and personal savings, He joined the London University once again in July 1920, and completed BAR-AT-LAW from Greys Inns (1922), along with D.Sc. For six months He got admitted in Bonn University (Germany) and started working on thesis on economics. Bonn and Berlin those days were enamored by Marxism and socialist school of thought which however could not influence Ambedkar much. He not only studied economics and law; but also indology in Bonn along with German & French languages.
By 1923 with M.A., Ph.D (Columbia, USA); M.Sc., D.Sc. (London University); BAR-AT-Law (Greys-Inn, London) Dr. B. R. Ambedkar was the most educated Indian of His times; much ahead of the leading personalities of the day. Not only the most educated Indian, but most educated Asian too. This pre-eminence of Education & Learning made Him what He was.